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Responsibility and Brain Function

Old 08-11-2006, 02:57 PM
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Responsibility and Brain Function

For those who are interested.....
Responsibility and Brain Function

The idea that behavior is determined by physical causes is hard to reconcile with the intuitive notions of free will and moral agency on which our legal systems are based. Although many people believe that, in principle, human behavior is the physical result of a causally determined chain of biophysical events, most of us also put that aside when making moral judgments. We don’t say “but he had no choice—the laws of physics made him do it!”

However, as the neuroscience of decision-making and impulse control begins to offer a more detailed and specific account of the physical processes leading to irresponsible or criminal behavior, the amoral deterministic viewpoint will probably gain a stronger hold on our thinking. Whereas the laws of physics are a little too vague and general to displace the concept of personal responsibility in our minds, our judgment might well be influenced if an offender was shown to have sustained damage to certain brain systems necessary for responsible decision-making and self-control.

What has cognitive neuroscience learned about the causes of "good" versus "bad" behavior? Research has identified brain systems involved in many of the psychological abilities required for prosocial behavior.

The ability to weigh uncertain risks and rewards and make prudent decisions has been intensively studied in simple game-like tasks. Evidence from patients with damage to certain regions of prefrontal cortex and from normal subjects in functional neuroimaging experiments highlights the importance of prefrontal cortex in this ability. Acting without regard to potential negative consequences would be expected to increase the likelihood of criminal behavior.

Other abilities that are essential for prosocial behavior include the ability to take another's viewpoint and to empathize. Brain imaging has shown that when subjects understand stories or cartoon pictures whose plot or punch line depends on the thoughts or viewpoint of a character, some prefrontal cortical and limbic brain regions are more active than during similar tasks in which mental states are not relevant. A network encompassing many of the same areas is active in experiments that evoke empathy or a sense of moral violation.

Furthermore, these brain areas can be damaged in subtle and gradual ways, making it harder to draw a line between someone who should be excused due to an obvious brain injury and someone who should not because their brain is normal. Most illicit drugs affect prefrontal cortex and prolonged use has been linked to impaired prefrontal function. Even childhood abuse or severe neglect, which involve neither a direct mechanical insult to the brain nor a foreign substance crossing the blood-brain barrier, damage these systems. There are also genetic factors that influence the function of these systems.

Society is gradually responding to the emerging neuroscientific view of human behavior. This is evident in our treatment of criminals within the legal system, and also in our social mores and attitudes toward "bad" but noncriminal behavior such as compulsive drinking, gambling or sex. Within the legal system, evidence of neurological dysfunction is frequently introduced in the penalty phases of criminal trials. We perceive this as relevant to the defendant's responsibility for his or her behavior, and it seems reasonable to punish a person less harshly if they are less responsible. This may put us on a slippery slope, however, once we recognize that all behavior is 100% determined by brain function, which is in turn determined by the interplay of genes and experience.

The growing awareness of neuroscience explanations of criminal behavior has prompted ethicists and legal theorists to seek other interpretations of responsibility that do not depend on free will and to propose so-called "forward thinking" penal codes, designed not to mete out just deserts for previous behavior, but to encourage good behavior and protect the public. The "disease model" of substance addiction, and the extension of the medicalized notion of addiction to other compulsive behaviors such as compulsive gambling and compulsive sex, is another way in which brain-based explanations of behavior have impacted society. The disease model emphasizes the deterministic and physiological nature of the behaviors and thereby reduces their moral stigma.

Martha J. Farah
Reference:
http://neuroethics.upenn.edu/responsibility.html
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Old 08-11-2006, 08:09 PM
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Fascinating

Thanks for sharing the article. It sparked some thoughts about individual and collective accountabilty.

It even leads me to think that if there is any hope for us as a species (saving ourselves from ourselves-which will require compassion) it seems that science is going to have to pull it off.

Good article.
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Old 08-11-2006, 10:30 PM
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myideas are correct but gosh darn to articulate (right imo)--i dont take much responsibility for mine or believe other should--ive always acted or for where i was--especially in my teens and tweties--now in my thirties i think a litle more but i still do things because thats is where i am--probs inside of me--not to be bed--not able to do anything or dont have courage or know how totry to change it--phew--i emathize with others--no judgment--maybe some of you will understand this--i know how gret it is to realize this--thats the best i cab explain
hope you are well
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Old 08-12-2006, 12:05 AM
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Thanks Eq. I'm always fascinated with human biology, and as you probably know, I have a personal interest where recovery and the brain is involved.

I'm curious about your opinion on something. Mind if I toss it in? Maybe you can make heads or tails of it.

I haven't done any research, because well, I have an opinion already based on observation. But it is important to have as best an educated assessment as possible. I've been putting it off.

TIA
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Old 08-12-2006, 12:41 AM
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I'm curious about your opinion on something. Mind if I toss it in? Maybe you can make heads or tails of it.
Go for it - my opinion might my bollox of course!!

I haven't done any research, because well, I have an opinion already based on observation. But it is important to have as best an educated assessment as possible. I've been putting it off.
I wish I could reference this, or even remember it coherently - but there's something to be said for learning the evidence held in opposition to your or view. Something along the lines of not being able to know what something is until you can prove it isn't. BLAH!!! Either way I'm for learning lock, stock and two smoking barrels - regardless of whether or not an opinion has been formed.
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Old 08-12-2006, 01:29 AM
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So you're posting something which asserts the disease model of addiction. Well, thanks for that. It's very even-handed of you.

The "disease model" of substance addiction, and the extension of the medicalized notion of addiction to other compulsive behaviors such as compulsive gambling and compulsive sex, is another way in which brain-based explanations of behavior have impacted society. The disease model emphasizes the deterministic and physiological nature of the behaviors and thereby reduces their moral stigma.
Which is precisely what people who use the disease model as a therapeutic tool have said since umm 1935. It's not about whether it's objectively true, it's about whether it works in treatment.
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Old 08-12-2006, 01:36 AM
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I just read a great book titled: Food and Behavior By: Barbara Reid Stitt.

That addreses this very subject you are researching. I highly reckomend this book to anyone dealing with people in the criminal justice system. It is well referenced and researched(I know you have to have that)

I found the book to be quite realistic. The author is a former juvenile probation officer who wanted answers as to why the same kids kept coming back thru her office. She found that a malnourished brain has a great deal of difficulty producing behaviors that are in harmony with societies norms. Read it equus I think you will find some answers you are looking for.

Here is another review of her book written by Jay Banks

Barbara Stitt's book, Food and Behavior, is dedicated to the children and adults who have been mis-led and mis-fed. In other words, it is dedicated to America. In fact, even though Barbara became intimately involved with the relationship between food and behavior mainly through her work as a probation officer, most Americans could read this book and relate it to problems of their own or those of some friend or family member -- even though these problems didn't necessarily lead to run-ins with the law.

Despite the fact that most AMA doctors mention diet as an afterthought when dealing with an illness, most people would still be able to make the connection between diet and certain illnesses. We see public service announcements on television for cancer or high blood pressure that remind us that these illnesses are diet related. If you eat cereal for breakfast, chances are your box says that it may help prevent heart disease or lower your cholesterol.

But how many people would relate an emotional or mental problem to diet? In this area, people are given advice ranging from "buck up" or "get it together," to advice to seek professional counseling, to prescriptions for mood-altering drugs. It is now common practice for doctors, in the absence of an obvious physical problem, to evaluate a patient's emotional situation and prescribe antidepressants accordingly.

But could there be another factor overlooked by the majority of Americans? Author Barbara Stitt says yes, and that factor is food.

According to Barbara, the Standard American Diet (SAD diet), loaded with empty calories, overly processed foods -- sweetened, refined, stripped of nutrients, over-cooked, chemically treated, and devoid of any real nutrition -- is affecting people's mental health.

Barbara touches on several dietary related issues that affect the brain, the most important organ of the body.

The first issue covered in depth is reactive hypoglycemia, in which the body's blood sugar levels are too low to meet the brain's needs. Although there are other causes of hypoglycemia, the average 129 pounds of sugar per person eaten each year by Americans is the main cause of the reactive hypoglycemia that sends blood sugar on a wild roller coaster ride from high to low -- accompanied with a craving for sweets that starts the cycle all over again if sugary laden foods are eaten. Amazingly, due to the high amount of processed sugar we now eat, as much as 50 percent of all Americans may be hypoglycemic. The physical and mental results of the hypoglycemic state include: apprehension, trembling, irritability, confusion, amnesia, and hallucinations -- all symptoms the average psychiatrist would diagnose as neurosis, psychosis or schizoprenia. There is also a documented link between hypoglycemia and aggressive or violent behavior.

The next startling topic in the book is sub-clinical pellagra -- a once wide-spread niacin-deficiency disease in the southern United States with symptoms that include dermatitis, disorientation, confusion, memory lapses, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and ultimately, dementia and death.

While pellagra is thought to have been eliminated, Barbara raises the issue of developing some symptoms of the disease without developing full blown pellagra.

The startling part of sub-clinical pellagra, like hypoglycemia, is that the symptoms also mirror those of schizophrenia, a problem so widespread that those who suffer from it occupy one out of every four hospital beds in the United States.

A third topic the author details is vitamin B deficiencies, giving symptoms that could easily be confused with mental disorders. These B vitamins include B1, B2, B6, and B12. B12 deficiencies, for example, are well known for causing mental disturbances, such as paranoia, mental confusion, and dementia. In fact, the included table that compares vitamin B deficiencies to neuropsychiatric disorders is uncanny.

Interestingly enough, Barbara points out that a B-vitamin deficiency can be related to a high sugar intake because, even though sugar contains no nutrients, the body must use stored nutrients to metabolize the sugar into energy. Therefore, meals high in processed foods not only provide little if any nutrition, they compound deficiency-related problems by robbing the body of nutrients in order to convert these non-foods into forms useable by the body.

Other food-related problems covered in some depth in the book as they relate to behavior are: allergic reactions to food; alcohol consumption; the effects of toxic substances such as aluminum, lead, mercury, etc.; man-made chemical additives such as MSG and Nutrasweet; and milk, which is surprisingly high in sugar and causes allergic reactions in a large percentage of the population.

These problems are also related to crime and violence, often with real-life examples pulled from the author's probation files or related studies, with names changed, of course.

Overall, Food & Behavior is well worth taking the time to read. If there was any complaint at all with the book, it would be that the diet information is a little sparse. This is nothing too out of the ordinary, however, since the book was not designed to be a cookbook. And any minor complaints, such as Barbara advocating whole-wheat products, when many of these products are only slightly better than white-flour products health-wise, really are minor when you factor in the success she has had with keeping people out of trouble.

Barbara claims more than 80 percent of probationers who came to her after she started using a food-based treatment were able to go on to live full, productive lives; and analyzing a twelve year study, found that not a single individual who stayed with the program had been back in trouble. While there very well may be other issues involved with crime and violence, it is hard to ignore the results Barbara has had with her program.
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Old 08-12-2006, 02:14 AM
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Originally Posted by paulmh
So you're posting something which asserts the disease model of addiction. Well, thanks for that. It's very even-handed of you.



Which is precisely what people who use the disease model as a therapeutic tool have said since umm 1935. It's not about whether it's objectively true, it's about whether it works in treatment.
Paul - I believe alcohol addiction is medical. If asked to offer a yes/no answer to if it's a disease I would answer yes. BUT disease doesn't mean incurable, loss of free will, not impacted by behaviour, uninfluenced by society, or that it is ONLY physical. The 'disease model' of addiction where I've seen it offered is inadequate and inaccurate.

I would still maintain that to understand if A is B you need both an understanding of what A is AND what B is. There is no why on earth I can imagine being able to understand disease by ONLY looking at alcohol addiction. That would be like trying to understand the nature of mammals by only observing a mouse!! Even worse if only a mouse was observed and then mammals became defined only in terms of a great ape - heaven help the person trying to assess if a mouse was a mammal.

In understanding mind and brain and how one relates to the other it's a matter of garsping limits, we see readily how substances effecting brain then also effect mind, but what influences are constant?

It doesn't frighten me to think along these lines. I get up and choose my clothes, I'm happy to have the choice but also aware that the choice I'm making is to some extent enclosed. I don't wear an 18th century ball gown, nor do I wear animal skins roughly sewn together. I wear jeans and a T-shirt - the clothes of my time and place.

I look at mind and brain that way, I know I have choices but I highly doubt that they are without restriction. That doesn't make me feel I have no choice, I still choose the clothes I wear.
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Old 08-12-2006, 05:56 AM
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man, my typing looked hideous--sorry--lol
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Old 08-12-2006, 05:58 AM
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Responsible: 1) acccountable, as for something within one's own power
2) having capacity for moral decisions and therefore accountable

Which brings us directly to the question of what is within one's own power. What is the capacity.

Are morality and freewill within one's own power to choose? To what extent are we capable of choosing.

Again, on Naturalism: Understanding causality. Multiple choice freewill. We're capable only to the extent we're aware of our options. And in that, perhaps, only accountable and responsible to that extent?

Steven Johnson's 2005 Mind Wide Open explores perception, how what we perceive determines our reaction. Most of it happening way beyond our consciousness; it's hard-wired response. Almost as though we don't have power to influence it. Only if one is AWARE of their perceptions and reactions to them, can they be altered.

Acting without regard to potential negative consequences would be expected to increase the likelihood of criminal behavior.

Prefrontal cortex activity is directly linked to abilities in "responsible decision-making and self-control." In that people may be limited in their capacity to take another's viewpoint and to empathize.

Without delving any further into this as it gets very mired down in explanation, I'll conclude in saying that there's a terrible shortage of self-awareness in human nature. And I believe, through chosen deliberate awareness, most can choose to do better. Even through a diseased brain. Perhaps not wet-brain or severe damage to the prefrontal cortex, but those are extreme exceptions. My experience with drugs that directly affect perception suggests to me that people have far, far more capacity to direct our actions and reactions than we actually engage.

Yet, despite that promising hopeful solution, most choose to remain unaware and blind to their options and actions. It's just easier to stick with preconceptions, convictions, beliefs.
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Old 08-12-2006, 06:09 AM
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Without delving any further into this as it gets very mired down in explanation, I'll conclude in saying that there's a terrible shortage of self-awareness in human nature. And I believe, through chosen deliberate awareness, most can choose to do better. Even through a diseased brain. Perhaps not wet-brain or severe damage to the prefrontal cortex, but those are extreme exceptions. My experience with drugs that directly affect perception suggests to me that people have far, far more capacity to direct our actions and reactions than we actually engage.
I agree utterly and would readily include myself as a person how could choose better - hence there being point to life, to learn, change, and act in different ways.

The brain is fascinating, like the stars and the deep sea - unlike stars and oceans though it is soley about 'us' as human beings and for that reason I think it has traditionally been surrounded with myths and fear.

I live within a reality that is real to me, I don't find knowledge about how the brain is connecting to the mind a challenge to that - largely because there is so much room for me as an individual to grow within what I have.
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Old 08-12-2006, 07:40 AM
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most can choose to do better.I believe, through chosen deliberate awareness,
The very people who need this awareness the most are often litterly unable to obtain it, unable to choose to be aware because of abuse,alcoholism, addiction, alergins, and neurotoxins poisoning their brains. These things are a closed circle this is the merry-go-round that plagues so many people where addiction of any kind is a problem. If the hypo-thalamus(the hypothalamic nuclei serve to activate, control,and intergrate the peripheral automonic mechanisms,endrocrinal and many somatic functions and also it controls the master gland the pitutary which sends out these messages) activities is not recieving the trace minerals it needs it is almost a guarentee that even if people are looked dead in the face and confronted, convicted, and put in jail they are incapible to freely choose good behavior own their own volution. Their are many who could be help by a nutritional approach. It seems like this is falling on dead ears.
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Old 08-12-2006, 08:05 AM
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I agree very much Splendra! I appreciate your input and couldn't agree more. Nutrition is definitely next on my list of major improvements (thanks too for hypothalamus 101; I had long forgotten its role). I know it has a huge role in regulating certain bodily functions in connection with the brain. Yes - here it is - I looked it up in my medical dictionary.



This is some good information I can use for myself, for sure. There's some other stuff I have going on too, but o/t.

The question I had for Equus was for my SO with regard to his head injury; I'll refer to him as "D2" since she has a "D" also! There isn't much more I can do for him nutritionally, as he passes out drunk almost nightly now. He skips many meals due to this. I pack him healthy lunches and make sure he gets a supplement. He needs to do his part!

Thanks for your posts Splendra!




Equus - The information re D2's head injury is a brief synopsis his sister sent me via e-mail. I don't have access to detailed medical records. I'm going to try to find out more. Thanks for offering to help though. I appreciate it and will update.
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Old 08-12-2006, 08:18 AM
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Or perhaps deaf ears.

While I agree whole-heartedly about the extreme relevance of proper nutrition as it contributes to and in fact affords ability for capable thinking, also regard poor nutrition as a root cause of many physical, mental, and social ills, and people certainly would benefit greatly from healthy diet, I can't give it as much weight as I do other mental/ emotional factors as far as addiction is concerned. Perhaps I'm being far too subjective here, but I can speak for myself and a few others I've known, who take great care to avoid all chemical additives and eat balanced, healthy foods, organic growers in fact, who struggle with long-term addiction. Strong physical health is priority to us, our work and independent lifestyle relies on it. Got that going fine. But the addiction persists. I've been "looked dead in the face and confronted" (never incarcerated) and maintained that my drug use is completely justified, no nutrient deficieny present. It's the hard-wired mental programming that's messing with the synapse firing, in my experience.
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Old 08-12-2006, 08:30 AM
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This is turning out to be a good all-around discussion!

Gainor, I think Splendra's contribution was in regard to brain function in general, as applies to overall health.



Your situation is undoubtedly frustrating. I wish you some speedy resolution. Have you tried CBT?

I know alcohol depletes the body of nutrients in a different way than other drugs; combine it with a head injury, and I'm sure you can understand my frustration as well!
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Old 08-12-2006, 09:30 AM
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I strongly and profusely agree with the nutritional arguments.

After working in a probiotic health food company for a few years and seeing first hand the importance of diet on so many people I am now a firm believer that the first thing to improve the health of any individual - mental, physical or emotional - is food.

We are what we eat!

"Let food be your medicine and medicine your food. Whosoever gives these things no consideration and is ignorant of them, how can he understand the diseases of man."
-- Hippocrates, ca. 400 BC --

It seems ridiculous that the medical profession do not study food and nutrition to a greater extent! We think we are so smart in this modern world that we can throw whatever down our throats and let our bodies work it out, function well and never get sick. Pop a pill if we need to, get better quickly ... all just too dam silly.

No one would put the wrong fuel into a car and expect it to run, but we do it to ourselves all the time. Just observe the effects of sugar on the behaviour of children, they get addicted very quickly.

I really think we are looking in all the wrong places for the answers. Eat your vegies, eat yogurt, eat unprocessed, eat green, get some sunlight, laugh, exercise ... Then have another look at the brain and its chemicals.

Sorry but I get a bit over all the over analysing of health, it really is a simple thing.

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Old 08-12-2006, 09:58 AM
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I think that's why the phrase is "mind over matter", not "matter over mind".

Certainly I completely agree that what one puts into the body is fundamental to good overall health. But in the context of this thread as it concerns matters of mind...mental programming, responsibility and brain function, it's not so much about the fuel that goes into driving the machine, as it is about how the engine is wired.

I know of people who adhere to strict nutritional programs and still got cancer. Who exercise daily and still have high blood pressure. I know first hand what it is to eat well (a pound of yogurt with Grape Nuts every day for 15 years, organically grown greens daily, nothing artificial...and I'm almost never physically ill) and still there's addiction...

Physical nutrition as it applies to overall physical health...no question about how that works. Direct relationship. As it applies to mental hard-wiring, the relationship is far more complex.

In response to your inquiry Autumn, I've not invested nearly enough into exploring CBT or other cognative therapy options. Until very recently I wasn't sure I wanted to leave the drugs behind, and actively engaging mental processing techniques to do so makes addict-thinking quite agitated.
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Old 08-12-2006, 10:10 AM
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There isn't much more I can do for him nutritionally, as he passes out drunk almost nightly now. He skips many meals due to this. I pack him healthy lunches and make sure he gets a supplement. He needs to do his part!
I couldn't do my part when I was drinking....
When I used to drink heavily I worked in a Chiropractors office he knew about my drinking problem and who wouldn't have HA! I was definatly hypo-glycemic from drinking(*studies prove that all alcoholics are hypoglycemic) The Dr. that I worked for insisted that I get my blood sugar balanced out everyday day in and day out he nagged me to eat right. I hardly ever ate cause I was saving all my calories for alcohol. Coming from a family with sever eating disorders and eating patterns I was scared to death of becoming fat. I would quit drinking long enough to get my blood sugar balanced then go back to drinking. The hangovers were hurrendous for me in thoughs days. When I would get my sugar levels right the alcohol would show me what it was really doing to me when I would drink again. I really had these hangovers all the time I was just so used to them that they did not really bother me cause I would start drinkng as soon as I got up to take care of the nasty bugger...Mind you I also had a team of shrinks working with me at the same time...They tried me on meds but , the combination of me drinking with them was not good at all I felt very yucky on the meds. I perfered to medicate with alcohol and pot. I formerly used meth amp and alcohol and pot but took myself off of the meth due to bad chest pains.

I could not change my behavior or even focus on it until I got my blood sugar balanced. Also I was having allergic reactions to so many foods I finally went on the most strict diet for almost 2 years with only short(day or 2) reprieves. Even before I started drinking I had many allergies I always was coughing,sniffleing,watery eyes, rashes ect ect. But it got much worse after I started drinking oh good Lord I was a mess...

The diet I was on kept me thin as a rail I lost weight when I quit drinking too.

I had to not eat anything that turned to sugar which eliminated all fruits, and grains. That meant no pasta,potatoes,breads,fruits. I ate foods that were high in mineral and anti-oxidents when possible being a vegetarain also put extra restrictions on my diet. I am allergic to milk too so I could not have any milk or cheese either. I did eat feta from goat and some eggs too. I had to eat small and often which I really hated...I hate breakfast but I had to eat it. I ate alot of plain vegetarian yogurt and took all kinds of supplements (no multi vitamins) because we had to see how my body reacted to each different nutrient. I hate typing!! Especially all these references...

*researchers Poulos, Stoddard, and Carron studied 200 alcoholics in 1973 and found 97% to be hypogycemic.
*Dr. William Philpott,observation of the 1978 convention, Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry 1997, Vol.8 No.4, pp 273-74 states all alcoholics are hypoglycemic and has direct bearing on alcoholism.

It really gets in my gut that it is a known fact that alcoholics have this problem of hypoglycemia since 1973 and still in 2006 very little is being done about it. This is a major reason why people with alcohol problems keep relapsing. Maybe just maybe if these poor folks could be monitored closely enough for long enough they could get well. Oh I am mad!!!

Oh and another thing a flood destoyed almost all of my reference books a couple of years ago so it was really hard for me to find these references...I lost all of my "Mosbys" so thank goodness for my "medical dictionary Dolland's" 101 that survived the flood...
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Old 08-12-2006, 12:37 PM
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Autumn,

Did you mean to post more details regarding his head injury or is this really all you have?

All I can do is to try and say where I would begin, you may already have tried some or all of it. Are you UK based?

First of all I'd try to establish the extent of injury, time unconscious, time in hospital, length of rehabilition (if any), and area damaged. If it as me I would definately ask questions until I had all the information I had any chance of getting.

Secondly I would look at the 'whole' situation, I would write down the answers to these questions (and probably others that came to mind):

* What is it that concerns me most about his health and why?
* What do I think 'should' be done?
* What dilemas am I left with in living with him?
* Do I feel as though I'm taking the role of carer and why?
* What do I believe would happen without my care?

I would write the answers down, re read them and try to evidence/be objective as much as possible. Once I had some structure in front of me I'd contact a helpline or charity dealing with head injury (they may suggest another line for addiction or may recognise a common after effect - I don't know). I would start with the head injury because it's less subjective and hard as opposed to soft damage - I'd figure I need that info first.

Ok now's where I'm trying to express how I'd make a decision - there's no more to it than how I tend to go about things - it may well be rubbish! I'd try to put into percentage terms the extent I feel things are not as they should be, how much of life is impacted on? What is the extent of the impact? and the last bit a complete guess would be how much I felt was due to head injury. If I felt it had a considerable impact 50% or above (??) then I'd probably look for longer term support for me, a relatives group, internet resources, a drop in center.

In the mean time I'd start my own reading but use helplines to 'touch base' and keep myself on well recognised tracks. I did that reading about alcohol, I'd ask if my understanding sounded sensible until I felt confident.

The only thing I wouldn't do is stick my head in the sand!!! Nothing of the above is about manipulating someone - it's about being aware and knowing where help can be gained. It's hard to do that in an objective way in a crisis.

Here's a start:
http://www.headinjury.com/
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Old 08-14-2006, 12:45 AM
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Meeeeep!

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