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Old 04-01-2009, 07:25 PM
  # 45 (permalink)  
gneiss
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Join Date: Oct 2008
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I apologize for the length of this one. This is long, but if you aren't into the sciency aspects of addiction you can skip it.

Originally Posted by gerryP View Post
"We have heard all the time that addiction is genetic; I thought the medical community accepted that by and large. Are you refuting that?"

I am gneiss.
Yay!!! A taker!!

I have heard about the new genetics hypotheses you referred to (or at least I think you're referring to... do you know what the hypothesis is called?) but I can't think of what it's called, and I couldn't find the article I read about it. Anyway, I read about it a few weeks ago. Doesn't seem like it negates genetics, just changes our understanding of how it works. It seemed to combine genetics with the idea of cellular memory. Basically, as I understood it, you have these traits passed down and then cells can adapt to new environments/conditions and pass those traits on. But I've only read one article about it, and it's been a little while.

I took about ten minutes and found 7 scholarly articles about different studies regarding addiction and genetics. My search turned up 46, but these seven seemed the most relevant. And I only searched one database (had other homework to do ). If you want the actual article, send me a PM and I will be happy to send it on. I found this website as well, which may be interesting to you. The articles were all pulled from a journal called Addiction Biology.

1) Ciccocioppo R, Hyytia P. The genetic of alcoholism: learning from 50 years of research.. Addiction Biology [serial online]. September 2006:193, 194. Available from: Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Ipswich, MA. Accessed April 1, 2009.

An overview of recent research. The most compelling evidences is that polymorphism in the genes encoding different alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase isoforms can dramatically affect an individual's risk to develop alcoholism.

2) Lusher J, Ebersole L, Ball D. Dopamine D4 receptor gene and severity of dependence.. Addiction Biology [serial online]. October 2000;5(4):469-472. Available from: Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Ipswich, MA. Accessed April 1, 2009.

Family, twin and adoption studies demonstrate that substance dependence is determined partially by genes.

3) Xuei X, Flury-Wetherill L, Almasy L, et al. Association analysis of genes encoding the nociceptin receptor ( OPRL1) and its endogenous ligand ( PNOC) with alcohol or illicit drug dependence.. Addiction Biology [serial online]. March 2008;13(1):80-87. Available from: Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Ipswich, MA. Accessed April 1, 2009.

Recent studies in animal models have shown that the nociceptin system, comprising nociceptin (or OFQ/N, encoded by PNOC) and the nociceptin receptor (an opioid receptor-like protein encoded by OPRL1), may be involved in alcohol and other drug reward pathways. Neither gene was associated with alcohol or illicit drug dependence, although two single nucleotide polymorphisms in PNOC showed marginal association with alcoholism and one with illicit drug dependence.

4) Sir A, Ozkan M. Nicotine dependency of a girl at the age of 18 months.. Addiction Biology [serial online]. October 1998;3(4):483-484. Available from: Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Ipswich, MA. Accessed April 1, 2009.

This case report describes severe nicotine dependency developing at the age of 18 months. Familial, genetic, biological aspects of the case and the therapeutic strategy are discussed.

5) Benegal V, Antony G, Venkatasubramanian G, Jayakumar P. Gray matter volume abnormalities and externalizing symptoms in subjects at high risk for alcohol dependence.. Addiction Biology [serial online]. March 2007;12(1):122-132. Available from: Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Ipswich, MA. Accessed April 1, 2009.

Reduced right amygdala volumes have been reported in young, alcohol-na´ve subjects at high risk (HR) for alcohol dependence. The differences in brain morphometry have been associated with an excess of externalizing behaviors in these subjects. This may reflect a neurobiological vulnerability to alcohol dependence.

6) Bell R, Rodd Z, Lumeng L, Murphy J, McBride W. The alcohol-preferring P rat and animal models of excessive alcohol drinking.. Addiction Biology [serial online]. September 2006;11(3/4):270-288. Available from: Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Ipswich, MA. Accessed April 1, 2009.

Overall, these findings indicate that the P rat can be effectively used in models assessing alcohol-preference, a genetic predisposition for alcohol abuse and/or alcoholism, and excessive drinking using protocols of binge-like or relapse-like drinking.

7) Hink R, Hokanson J, Shah I, Long J, Goldman D, Sikela J. Investigation of DUSP8 and CALCA in alcohol dependence.. Addiction Biology [serial online]. September 2003;8(3):305. Available from: Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Ipswich, MA. Accessed April 1, 2009.

Two genes, calcitonin/calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha (CALCA) and dual specificity phosphatase 8 (DUSP8), met our criteria for candidacy, and were sequenced to identify polymorphisms that may be relevant to disease. Both genes play a role in various pathways known to underlie the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to development of alcohol dependence.
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